Standard V: Administration and Financial Support
The school is an integral yet distinctive academic unit within the institution. Its autonomy is sufficient to assure that the intellectual content of its program, the selection and promotion of its faculty, and the selection of its students are determined by the school within the general guidelines of the institution. The parent institution provides the resources and administrative support needed for the attainment of program objectives.
The School of Library and information Science is one of 13 schools at Indiana University Bloomington. SLIS also operates on the Indiana University Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI) campus. This section describes the school’s administration on both campuses.
SLIS has been in continuous operation at Indiana University since 1949. The university’s first organized library science curriculum, a program for the preparation of school librarians, was offered by the School of Education in the summer of 1930. In 1938 this curriculum was expanded and made available in the regular school year as well as during the summer session. In 1947 the Division of Library Science was established within the School of Education. A basic undergraduate curriculum in library science concerned with the fundamental processes common to all types of libraries was offered as a minor within the four-year program leading to the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree in the College of Arts and Sciences or to the Bachelor of Science in Education degree in the School of Education.
A five-year program leading to the Master of Arts with a major in library science, granted by the Graduate School, was created in 1949, and a Ph.D. program in library and information science was established in 1964. In 1966 the Trustees of Indiana University established the Graduate Library School and the professional degree Master of Library Science (MLS), replacing the Master of Arts degree granted by the Graduate School. The Specialist degree program was added to the curriculum in 1978. In 1980 the school was officially renamed the School of Library and Information Science (SLIS). The addition of the Master of Information Science (MIS) degree in 1995, changing the name of the Ph.D. degree to “Information Science” in 1998, and the establishment of the Graduate Certificate in Information Architecture in 2005 reflect the school’s continuing commitment to change.
The school’s faculty determine the intellectual content that defines the School of Library and Information Science; the Curriculum Steering Committee, currently chaired by Noriko Hara, manages this activity. The committee, which includes faculty, doctoral students, and MLS and MIS students, reviews proposals for new courses and specializations (and changes to existing specializations), new dual degrees (and changes to existing dual degrees), and major changes in existing courses. The committee also undertakes periodic reviews of the curricula for the two master’s degree programs. Curricular review is also the responsibility of the directors of these two programs, Ronald Day (MLS) and Howard Rosenbaum (MIS). The doctoral curriculum is the responsibility of the Doctoral Program Steering Committee, currently chaired by Susan Herring, director of the doctoral program.
The SLIS dean is ultimately responsible for the hiring of new faculty. Each search is handled by an ad hoc search and screen committee appointed and charged by the dean. After receiving its charge, the search and screen committee develops and disseminates a position description and engages in searches to identify suitable candidates. The committee makes arrangements for candidates to come to SLIS to give formal presentations and interview with faculty and students, and, in the case of a candidate for whom an offer with tenure might be made with the Vice Provost for Faculty and Academic Affairs. At the conclusion of a candidate visit, the committee solicits evaluations of the candidate from the faculty and students who participated in the interviews and/or who attended the presentation. At the end of a search, the committee provides the dean with a ranked list of suitable candidates. Typically, three outcomes are possible: the dean selects a candidate from the list, decides not to fill the position, or reconstitutes the committee and charges them with another search. Some 16 searches have been conducted since 2005, resulting in 13 new faculty hires including Tomas Lipinski, the executive associate dean at SLIS Indianapolis.
The faculty and administration work together on the selection and admission of students. Procedures for the two master’s degree programs and the specialist program are described in Chapter IV (see Admission Practices, in particular). Students interested in the Ph.D. program complete an Indiana University Graduate Application for Admission and include a current résumé, a chronology detailing that activities from high school graduation to the present, and a writing sample. The Doctoral Program Steering Committee conducts an initial screening, removing applications that do not meet the minimum requirements outlined in the school’s doctoral program admission policy. It reviews the applications and assesses possible connections between an applicant’s research interests and those of the SLIS faculty. Applications for which there seem to be a reasonable fit are made available for full faculty review; if two faculty members respond positively to a particular application and indicate that they would be willing to work with the applicant, an offer of admission is made. Financial aid decisions are made by the Committee and vary according to the available budget and presence of scholarships and awards.
Support from the University
Indiana University provides the school with resources and administrative support. As Table 5.1 shows, funding for SLIS administrative and technical staff salaries over the last seven years ranged from $338,737 (2005-2006) to $748,566 (2010-2011).
Chapter VI describes the physical facilities and technology that support SLIS faculty, students, and staff. Budgeting and financial support are discussed in detail in the section of this chapter on Financial Support.
The school's faculty, staff, and students have the same opportunity for representation on the institution's advisory or policy-making bodies as do those of comparable units throughout the institution. The school's administrative relationships with other academic units enhance the intellectual environment and support interdisciplinary interaction; further, these administrative relationships encourage participation in the life of the parent institution.
Representation on Institutional Bodies
SLIS is more than adequately represented in IU advisory and/or policy-making bodies. SLIS Dean Debora Shaw participates in deans’ monthly meetings with the Provost and has chaired or participated in university level advisory or policy-making bodies including the campus Promotion and Tenure Committee and the Bloomington Faculty Council. Associate Dean Howard Rosenbaum participates in associate deans meetings and sits on the Campus Curriculum Committee and the University Budget Roundtable. Blaise Cronin and Jean Preer served on the Core Campus Review Committee. Pnina Fichman is the SLIS representative to the Bloomington Faculty Council. SLIS faculty have participated in a number of advisory and policy making bodies including the Provost’s Task Force on Elearning and the Bloomington Faculty Council’s committees on Faculty Misconduct Review; Faculty Affairs; and Reorganization, Merger, and Elimination.
At the Indianapolis campus, Tomas Lipinski and Rachel Applegate serve on the Indianapolis Faculty Council; Applegate has been elected to its Executive Committee and Resources Planning Committee, and to represent the campus on the University Faculty Council. She has also chaired the Budgetary Affairs Committee at IUPUI. Oliver Chen has served on the campus’s Enrollment Management Council.
Within the school, graduate students from all SLIS programs are eligible to serve on the school’s Curriculum Steering Committee and IT Committee. They are also active in the university’s Graduate and Professional Student Organization and in student chapters of professional groups, as discussed in Chapter IV ( Appendix 4.1. Student Groups and Student Chapters of Professional Associations).
The school has administrative relationships with other academic and administrative/support units on both campuses that enhance the intellectual environment for students, faculty, and staff. For example, SLIS currently partners with 16 departments to offer 21 joint degrees, 17 for the MLS and 4 for the MIS degree. Chapter II (StandardII) describes the dual degree programs. As noted in Chapter VI, SLIS technical support staff make use of expertise from the University Information and Technology services’ IT Professional Support group and the IT Policy and Security Office. Faculty collaborations with academic colleagues from other departments, schools, and universities are discussed in Chapter III ( Connections with Academic and Professional Constituencies).
The executive officer of a program has title, salary, status, and authority comparable to heads of similar units in the parent institution. In addition to academic qualifications comparable to those required of the faculty, the executive officer has leadership skills, administrative ability, experience, and understanding of developments in the field and in the academic environment needed to fulfill the responsibilities of the position. The school's executive officer nurtures an intellectual environment that enhances the pursuit of the school's mission and program goals and the accomplishment of its program objectives; that environment also encourages faculty and student interaction with other academic units and promotes the socialization of students into the field.
The school’s administrators have title, salary, status, and authority comparable to administrators of similar units. The school’s Executive Officer is Dean Debora Shaw. The dean is the chief administrative officer of the school and reports to the Interm Provost of the Bloomington campus ; this reporting line is the same for other core schools (Education, Informatics and Computing, Journalism, Public and Environmental Affairs) as well as professional schools and colleges based only on the Bloomington campus (e.g., College of Arts and Sciences, Law, Music). Dean Shaw’s main responsibilities are to provide academic leadership, articulate the mission of the school, facilitate the conduct of research, maintain a strong funding base, and ensure that agreed-upon policies and strategies are implemented in timely fashion. She is a member of the Bloomington Academic Deans Council. She has oversight responsibility for all of the school’s activities and is ultimately responsible for the effective management of its human, physical, and financial resources on both campuses. The dean works closely with the faculty, particularly through the Faculty Policy Council, in developing strategy, formulating policy, and setting both short- and long-term objectives. The dean appoints chairs and members of the standing and ad hoc committees, taking into account each individual’s expertise and preferences as well as the school’s needs. The dean chairs all regular meetings of the full faculty and provides an annual report on the state of the school, typically at a spring faculty meeting.
Professor and Dean Debora Shaw’s research focuses on information organization and information seeking and use. Her work has been published in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, the Journal of Documentation, Library & Information Science Research, and First Monday, among others. Dr. Shaw served as President of the American Society for Information Science (1997), and has also served on the Society’s Board of Directors. She has been affiliated with the Annual Review of Information Science and Technology as a chapter author, indexer, and subsequently associate editor from1986 through 2011. She is currently Associate Editor for the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. Dr. Shaw received bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the University of Michigan and Ph.D. from Indiana University. She was on the faculty at the University of Illinois before joining Indiana University. Dr. Shaw served as interim dean of the school from August 2003 through June of 2004.
Dr. Blaise Cronin served as dean of SLIS from July 1991 to July 2003 and again from July 2004 to December 2010. In 1999, Professor Cronin was named Rudy Professor of Information Science, a permanent appointment. Dr. Cronin received his Master of Library Science and Ph.D. in Information Science from The Queen’s University of Belfast; he was awarded the DSSc from The Queen’s University of Belfast and D. Litt (honoris causa) from Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh. During his tenure as dean, Professor Cronin served on many campus and university-wide committees, including the University Information Technology Services Advisory Committee, while maintaining a high profile nationally and internationally as a teacher, researcher, and consultant. He is one of the most widely published and highly cited scholars in the field. He was the editor of the Annual Review of Information Science and Technology and is currently Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology.
Dr. Howard Rosenbaum was appointed associate dean in January 2007 and reappointed in January 2011. He is responsible for scheduling courses on the Bloomington campus and is closely involved in the annual faculty review and evaluation processes in Bloomington. Associate Dean Rosenbaum participated in the 2010-2011 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, designed by the Committee on Institutional Cooperation to enhance the leadership and managerial skills of faculty who have demonstrated exceptional ability and administrative promise. Dr. Rosenbaum also serves on the Indiana University Bloomington Campus Curriculum Committee, the Budget Roundtable, the Associate Deans Advisory Committee, and the Vice President for Research’s Advisory Committee. He received the American Society for Information Science and Technology’s 2011 Information Science Teacher of the Year award.
Dr. Tomas Lipinski joined the SLIS Faculty as Professor and Executive Associate Dean of the SLIS Indianapolis program in January 2010. Dr. Lipinski holds a doctoral degree from the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a J.D. from Marquette University Law School. He also earned a Master of Library and Information Science degree from the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where he subsequently served as professor and director of the MLIS program. At IUPUI, he has served on the Program Review and Assessment Committee and is a member of the Committee of Associate Deans. Dr. Lipinski currently serves on the Copyright Subcommittee of the American Library Association’s Office of Information Technology Policy and is incoming Chair of the ACRL Copyright Discussion Group. He is an active member of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. Executive Associate Dean Lipinski succeeds Marilyn Irwin (who served 2007-2010) and Daniel Callison (2001-2007).
Associate Professor Marilyn Irwin served as Executive Associate Dean for SLIS at Indianapolis from 2007 through 2010. Among other accomplishments, she was instrumental in securing IMLS funding for the Indiana’s Librarians Leading in Diversity (I-LLID) program. Before joining the SLIS faculty in 2002, Dr. Irwin directed the Center for Disability Information and Referral at the Indiana Institute on Disability and Community. Since she stepped away from the administrative position, her expertise on disabilities and information needs, especially assistive technologies has continued to be in demand.
Encouraging Faculty and Student Development
The environment at SLIS encourages collaboration and prepares students for professional careers. The deans’ and associate deans’ effectiveness in this effort can be seen in the faculty research activity productivity (see Chapter III, for example Table 3.7 on externally funded research). SLIS administrators lead by example and through administrative support for faculty initiatives. Faculty interaction with cognate academic units is evident from SLIS faculty members’ adjunct appointments with other schools and departments including the School of Informatics and Computing, the Department of Cognitive Science, the Department of English, and the Department of Linguistics. The school is committed to assisting students in building professional connections; annual financial support is shown in Table 5.2.
SLIS supports student activities in other ways as well, notably with faculty advisors to student groups (Appendix 4.1) and through the Career Services Office (Chapter IV.2). The school’s robust internship program for MLS and MIS students (S605 Internship in Library and Information Science) also helps student transition into professional careers; the associate deans oversee internship procedures (Chapter IV, Self-designed learning). In addition, faculty on both campuses create course assignments that require interaction with LIS professionals, local business people, and people working in the public sector and not-for-profit organizations. Those assignments provide students with experiences in interviewing, observing, working with, and writing about real world people, institutions, and problems and sometimes working on projects for external clients; some of these service learning experiences lead to internships and professional opportunities. Students gain a greater appreciation of library and information science as well as valuable experience in the information professions.
The school's administrative and other staff are adequate to support the executive officer and faculty in the performance of their responsibilities. The staff contributes to the fulfillment of the school's mission and program goals and objectives. Within its institutional framework the school uses effective decision-making processes that are determined mutually by the executive officer and the faculty, who regularly evaluate these processes and use the results.
- The administrative support staff provides essential assistance for the dean, the two associate deans, and the faculty and students. As of fall 2011, the SLIS-funded staff positions include:
- Director of Admissions and Placement (Spencer)
- Director of Finance and Administration (Burton)
- Director of Finance and Student Services (IUPUI) (Cole)
- Director of Information Technology (Napier)
- Development Officer (half time) (Martin)
- Accounting and Research Services Assistant (Smith)
- Administrative Secretary and Payroll Coordinator (Kennedy)
- Admissions Services Coordinator and Recorder (Clancy)
- Assistant Director of Information Technology (Gallant)
- Manager of UNIX/Web Applications (Cole)
- Manager of Web Services (Wray)
- Administrative Secretary (2) (IUPUI) (Binney, Sims)
At Indiana University, SLIS’s status as a school means that it has responsibility for functions that might be handled centrally in other institutions. For example, SLIS staff provide instructional support, manage the paperwork that accompanies admissions to and graduation from the various degree programs, assist with grant applications (particularly budgeting), and manage and maintain a complex information technology infrastructure. SLIS staff carries out these functions with alacrity and efficiency, contributing to the school’s success. Through involvement in the many events that take place at SLIS, the staff participates actively in the life of the school; staff members assist in events welcoming new students, help with logistics and publicity for speaker and faculty position candidates, assist in faculty travel arrangements, and engage in other articulation work that supports the lively intellectual life of the school.
SLIS pursues its mission effectively, using decision-making procedures outlined in its Governance Document. As described in detail in Chapter I, SLIS governance is the mutual responsibility of the dean and the faculty (Chapter I, Governance).
Faculty participation, through the standing and ad hoc committees, provides opportunity for various voices to be heard and supports effective decision making. The Faculty Policy Council (FPC), an elected group of three faculty members, represents the faculty as a whole in working with the dean on faculty policy issues and representing the faculty to campus and university bodies. The school’s unified yearly planning cycle (adopted in 2007) and strategic plan (approved in May 2009) also facilitate coordination and implementation of initiatives approved by the faculty (see Chapter I, Planning on two Campuses).
The school’s governance document requires faculty review of the document every three years. These opportunities also feed into the ongoing opportunities for improvement that emerge from individual faculty suggestions, committee recommendations, advice from alumni and employers, student comments and evaluations, and other sources identified in the SLIS planning document.
The parent institution provides continuing financial support sufficient to develop and maintain library and information studies education in accordance with the general principles set forth in these Standards. The level of support provides a reasonable expectation of financial viability and is related to the number of faculty, administrative and support staff, instructional resources, and facilities needed to carry out the school's program of teaching, research, and service.
- The budgetary system in place at Indiana University is “responsibility center management” (RCM). Implemented in 1990, RCM is based on three principles:
- all costs and income attributable to each school or other academic units should be assigned to that unit;
- appropriate incentives should exist for each academic unit to increase income and reduce costs to further a clear set of academic priorities;
- all costs of other units should be allocated to the academic units.
The university provides support in addition to the revenue generated by the academic unit. Operating under RCM, SLIS has generated revenues ranging between $3,693,878 (2005/2006) and $7,177,788 (2010/2011) based on the number of credit hours taken in the school. Institutional support from IU has ranged between $8,551,837 (2006/2007) and $10,634,692 (2010/2011) (see Table 5.3). This income has allowed the school to develop and maintain LIS education in accordance with the general principles set forth in the Standards.
As of the fall 2011 semester, SLIS has 24 full-time tenured and tenure-track faculty members (see Table 3.1). These are joined in their teaching responsibilities by 5 full-time lecturers and program directors/coordinators (Table 3.2) and more than 60 adjunct lecturers (Table 3.3). The budget for full-time faculty teaching has ranged between $2,243,789 (2005/2006) and $2,509,273 (2010/2011); during this period the budget for adjunct faculty teaching has ranged from $204,954 (2005/2006) to $287,273 (2010/2011). Tenured and tenure-track faculty members are each given a research fund from the school, the amount of which varies, to support research and travel; These funds are reviewed and renewed annually. Many faculty members also secure additional funding through external sources. The school’s administrative staff is also critical to the success of SLIS’s teaching, research, and service activities; the budget for administrative support has ranged from $409,578 (2005/2006) to $678,718 (2010/2011) (see Table 5.4).
Table 5.5 provides a summary of SLIS general funds on both campuses for 2011. Tuition accounts for slightly more than 80% of the school’s income; compensation and student aid make up a nearly equivalent percentage of expenses. Assessments (which the university categorizes as negative income) are the “taxes” paid for university and campus support (ranging from the university president’s office to libraries and computing, to grounds keeping). These account for about a quarter of the school’s budget (slightly lower in Bloomington than in Indianapolis).
School and university funding has underwritten ongoing improvement of instructional resources and facilities, ranging from new whiteboards in classrooms to the SLIS Information Commons (Bloomington) and Student Commons (Indianapolis). Other improvements include improved information technology infrastructure, and digital resources (see Chapter VI), including the upgrading of equipment in two labs and the PhD common area, new chairs and tables in the classrooms, and a steady addition of digital and non-digital resources, such as the video conferencing technology added to Room 036 in Bloomington in summer 2011. The levels of funding have been adequate for the school to engage on continual improvement; for a school of its size, SLIS has adequate income from a variety of sources to support its mission.
Compensation for a program's executive officer, faculty, and other staff is equitably established according to their education, experience, responsibilities, and accomplishments and is sufficient to attract, support, and retain personnel needed to attain program goals and objectives.
SLIS salaries are in line with IU average salaries for the executive officers, faculty, and administrative staff. IU typically lags toward the bottom of Big Ten institutions, the peer group for the Bloomington campus. IUPUI campus salaries typically are in the lowest quartile of the campus’s 12 peer institutions. Using 2010 ALISE data, Table 5.6 compares SLIS salaries with those responding to the ALISE statistical survey as a whole and with the midwest region; associate professor salaries are comparable to ALISE midwest, but well below the averages in other categories.
Salary increases for are determined by the dean (for Bloomington) or executive associate dean (Indianapolis), based on each faculty member’s annual review (see Chapter III, Faculty Evaluation for details). The university trustees set a general range for percentage increases and other constraints within which salaries are allocated to the faculty. Salaries for new faculty hires are negotiated by the faculty member and the dean/executive associate dean.
Institutional funds for research projects, professional development, travel, and leaves with pay are available on the same basis as in comparable units of the institution. Student financial aid from the parent institution is available on the same basis as in comparable units of the institution.
Institutional Funds for Travel and Student
Funds for research, travel, and leaves with pay are similar to those in cognate schools and departments at Indiana University. Funds available for research, including institutional funds and summer research support, have ranged from $144,992 (2007/2008) to $267,681 (2010/2011); funds for faculty and administrative travel have ranged from $70,250 (2009/2010) to $120,047 (2007/2008) (see Table 5.4). University policies on sabbatical and other leaves are administered in Bloomington by the Vice Provost for Academic Affairs and in Indianapolis by the Office of Academic Affairs.
Student financial aid comes from gifts and endowments from alumni and friends of the school, from external funding for special projects (the IMLS funding for Indiana Librarians Leading in Diversity is an example - see Chapter IV, section Nature of the Student Body). SLIS also funds student merit scholarships from the school’s budget. Funding from these various sources and is sufficient, although not as extensive as anyone would wish. In 2005/2006, $670,490 was available to support In 2005/2006, $670,490 was available to support 94 master’s students and 19 specialist and doctoral students. In 2010/2011, this figure was $1,230,074, supporting 107 master’s students and 25 specialist and doctoral students (see Table 5.4).
The school's planning and evaluation process includes review of both its administrative policies and its fiscal policies and financial support. Within applicable institutional policies, faculty, staff, students, and others are involved in the evaluation process. Evaluation is used for ongoing appraisal to make improvements and to plan for the future.
Planning and Evaluation
The school’s development and use of its planning and evaluation activities are described in Chapter I (section Planning on Two Campuses). The yearly cycle provides periodic reviews of the range of school activities – both objectives accomplished and where more work is needed. Along the way, and at year’s end, information on what worked and what did not triggers suggestions for improvements to administrative policies, fiscal policies, and policies for financial support, as well as governance and curricular issues. For example, the Governance Document names the Faculty Policy Council as the school’s Budgetary Review Committee. As the (new) dean and (new) executive associate dean prepared for campus budget hearings in spring 2011, they realized that a school-level budget committee does not provide the detailed insight and perspective required at each campus level. The dean and executive associate dean will propose new procedures, based on discussions with the FPC and other faculty members, as well as counterparts in other academic units. The proposal will be reviewed and revised by the FPC and the faculty as a whole before a vote is held on adoption. Policies on student financial assistance are reviewed by the director of admissions and placement, the Admissions Committee, and the dean (and executive associate dean, if for the Indianapolis campus). Policies regarding support provided through external grants always involve the faculty member(s) responsible for those awards; policies regarding fellowships established by alumni include discussion with the Indiana University Foundation, the holder of any gift agreement that stipulates the donor’s intent for the gift.